ABSTRACT: A basic understanding of the structure and form of the essential body parts that allow humans to communicate by language through the transmission system of speech is enlightening. It helps us appreciate the relationship between the physical structure of the various parts (organs and cells) and the function they perform.
One means of categorising the study of anatomy is to take a so-called regional approach. This means dividing the subject into regions of the body, e.g.
- upper limbs and back
- head and neck
- lower limbs
An alternative method is the systemic approach. This considers each system individually, e.g. respiratory system, vascular system, nervous system. However, we will adopt a predominantly regional approach here.
Of necessity, the anatomy critical to understanding human communication as we define it on this website is largely restricted to the head and neck, and the thorax. Specifically, five anatomical structures/mechanisms are considered:
The brain is divided into three parts: cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. The cerebrum is responsible for reasoning, emotion, memory, motor movements, and speech and language skills. The cerebellum co-ordinates motor movements and the brain stem controls automatic functions such as breathing. [read more]
The larynx is constructed of three main cartilages: thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, and arytenoid cartilages. The true vocal cords (vocal folds) can be abducted, allowing air to flow freely through the glottis. They can be adducted during phonation to create voiced speech sounds. Pitch is varied thorugh alteration in the tension of the vocal cords. The false vocal cords do not usually play a part in phonation. [read more]
The vocal tract consists of the air passages above the larynx. There are two main cavities: the nasal cavity and the oral cavity. They are separated by the hard palate and the soft palate. The shape of nasal cavity cannot be altered. In contrast, the tongue is a flexible muscle that can alter the configuration of the oral cavity. [read more]
Humans breathe by flattening and contracting the diagram for inhalation and relaxing the diaphragm for exhalation. Intercostal muscles assist breathing. [read more]
The ear consists of three parts: outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear. The outer ear directs sound waves into the middle ear. The ossicles of the middle ear amplify the vibration of the sound waves. The inner ear converts vibrations into electrical signals which are transmitted along the auditory nerve to the auditory cortex of the brain. [read more]
The words used to describe anatomical features and their positions are quite specific and may differ from their everyday use. Below is a brief glossary of words that should assist understanding of the articles on this website.
located before a part of, or towards the front of, a structure
located behind a part of, or toward the rear of, a structure
located below a part of, or beneath, a structure
located above a part of, or above, a structure
a side or surface facing in a particular direction